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纪念新中国首部《婚姻法》颁布实施70周年
新中国第一部《婚姻法》起草经过

发布时间: 2020-05-01 信息来源:一分时时彩_一分时时彩app下载---首页_欢迎您



    1950年4月13日,中央人民政府委员会第七次会议通过了《中华人民共和国婚姻法》(简称《婚姻法》)。这部法律于1950年5月1日正式颁布实施,共8章27条,废除了包办强迫、男尊女卑的封建主义婚姻家庭制度,禁止重婚、纳妾、童养媳、干涉寡妇婚姻自由等行为,实行一夫一妻、男女权利平等的婚姻政策,保护了广大妇女的权益。

    这是新中国成立后颁布的第一部基本法,在新中国法治史上具有重要的意义。正是这部法律,切实有力地保障了广大妇女儿童的权益,将广大中国妇女从封建婚姻制度下解放出来,为以后颁行的《婚姻法》打下了坚实的基础。这部在新中国社会主义法治史上地位独特的法律的起草过程值得人们去回味。

邓颖超主持起草小组工作

    1948nian9yue20rizhi10yue6ri,jiefangqufunvgongzuohuiyizaihebeixibopozhaokai。10yue5ri,liushaoqixiangjiefangqufunvgongzuohuiyuhuidaibiaojieshaolezhonggongzhongyangguanyuqicao《hunyinfa》deyixieshexianghesilu。“funvgongzuohuiyikailehenjiu,dangzhongyanggenjuzheicihuiyideqingxingyaofabiaoyigeguanyufunvgongzuodejueding,yijiqitawentidewenjianruhunyinfadeng,yibianzaiquanguofanweilitongyifunvyundongdefangzhenyuzhengce。”liushaoqishuo,hunyinwentishifunvgongzuodezhongyaozuchengbufen,xinzhongguojijiangchengli,yifenshishicaizheimedadeyigeguojia,yaoyouyibutongyide《hunyinfa》,xianzaishijiyijingchengshule,zhonggongzhongyangfunvyundongweiyuanhui(jiancheng“zhongyangfuwei”)xianzaijiuyaozuzhililiangqicaoxinhunyinfa,jianlixinminzhuzhuyidehunyinzhidu。

中央人民政府关于颁布《中华人民共和国婚姻法》的命令

    huiyiqijian,liushaoqixiangdengyingchaodengzhongyangfuweidetongzhibuzhileqicao《hunyinfa》degongzuo。liushaoqishuo: “xinzhongguoyichengli,nimenfunvgongzuozhederenwugengzhongle。youxiegongzuoxianzaijiuyaokaishizheshouzhunbeiheyanjiu。”“xinzhongguochenglihou,bunengmeiyouyibuhunyinfa,yifenshishicaizheimegewuyiduorenkoudedaguo,meiyouyibuhunyinfaqibuluantaole?zheigerenwujiaojinimenzhongyangfuwei,nimenmashangzheshou,xianzuoxiezhunbeigongzuo。”weileqicao《hunyinfa》,liushaoqijiangzijibaocundeyiben1931nianmaozedongqinziqianfade《zhonghuasuweiaigongheguohunyintiaoli》jiaojidengyingchaodengren,bingyaoqiutamenshenrudiaochayanjiujiefangqudehunyinzhuangkuang,zongjiejiefangquzhixinghunyintiaolidejingyanjiaoxun,fanfutaolun,zaidongshouqicao。

一分时时彩    jiefangqufunvgongzuohuiyijieshuhou,zhongyangfuweilijichenglile《hunyinfa》qicaoxiaozu(jiancheng“qicaoxiaozu”)。gaixiaozuyoudengyingchaozhuchi,chengyuanyouzhongyangfuweimishuzhangshuaimengqi,weiyuankangkeqing、yangzhihua、lipeizhi、luoqionghecengzaishanghaifudandaxuexuexifalvdewangruqi,youwangruqizhibi。

    发扬民主 充分讨论 字斟句酌

    jieshourenwushi,qicaoxiaozuchengyuanmenganggangcongjiefangqunongcunkaizhantudigaigehuilai,tamenshenzhinongcunfunvmenzaoshoufengjianhunyintongzhidetongku,lejienongcunqingniannannvpoqieyaoqiuhunyinziyoudeyuanwang。feichufengjianzhuyijiatinghunyinzhidu,zhidingyibuhehuguoqing、qieheshiyi、qieshiweihuguangdafunvquanyidexinminzhuzhuyihunyinfa,shiqicaoxiaozudemubiao,yeshitamendeshiming。

    zai《hunyinfa》qicaoguochengzhong,qicaoxiaozuchengyuanchongfenfayangleminzhuzuofeng。canyuqicao《hunyinfa》deluoqiongshuo: “neishihoudefengqifeichanghao,taolunwentishi,dajiakaichengbugong,changsuoyuyan。yinweizheishiweixinzhongguohewuwanwantongbaoqicaode《hunyinfa》,dajiadouyishidaotadefenliang。guangshikuangjiajiutuidaoguohaojici,meizhangmeitiaodoushizizhenjuzhuo。meicitaolundoushidajiaxianfabiaoyijian,youwangruqizuojilu;ranhouyoutanachuzhenglihoudegaozi,zaigongdajiataolun。”

    youyugangcong“tugaiqianxian”huilai,qicaoxiaozuchengyuanyifenshishicaitaolunleshidi“diaochayanjiu”deqingkuang。dengyingchaoshuo,tugaizaipingdingchengfenshi,youxienongcunna“poxie”zheidingmaozijiazaiyixiefunvdetoushang,huozhena“poxie”zuojiekouboduotamenyingdedetudiquan,shenzhibazheizuoweidajifunvdekoushi,duifunvjinxingdouzheng,youdefunvbeiboduoleyingdedequanli,shenzhilianhunyinziyou、xuanjuquan、beixuanjuquandoubeiboduole。youxietongzhitandaoyixiedifangzaitugaizhong,yigezhongfangshiganshequnzhonghunyinziyou,duitichulihundefunvbuzhuntamenchucun,qiangpoguafuyilvyaojiajipingunongguanggun,shenzhibadifufunvdangchengshengliguoshifenpei。youdetongzhifanyingsuojiansuowendekangshulihunwenti,yixiedifangkangshutichulihun,meiyoujingdeqianfangjunrendetongyi,difangzhengfubianpizhunlihun,yingxianglejunxin。

    保障人民充分的婚姻自由

一分时时彩    qicaoxiaozurenzhenyanjiuledangshijiangxisuquhegejiefangqude《hunyinfa》。biru,1928nian1yue,jiangxishengsuichuanxiangongnongbingzhengfunidingde《shizhengdagang》zhongjiyou“feichupinjinpinli,fanduimaimaihunyin”deguiding,maozedongshuo,yaoyongqunzhongdeyuyangaiyigai,zheiyangjitongsuyouyidong,keyigenghaodidadaoxuanchuanjiaoyuqunzhongdemude,suijiangqigaiwei“taolaopobuyaoqian”;1928nian7yue,zhongguogongchandangdiliuciquanguodaibiaodahuitongguodeguanyu《funvyundongjueyian》,mingquetichu“fanduiduoqizhi,fanduinianlingguoxiaozhichujia(tongyangxi),fanduiqiangpochujia,lihunquan,fanduimaimaifunv、baohunvgunongdelaodong”;1931nian,youmaozedongqianshu、beichengweizhongguohunyinjiatingzhidudagemingkaiduande《zhonghuasuweiaigongheguohunyintiaoli》dejibenyuanze,shifeichufengjiandebaobanqiangpohemaimaihunyinzhidu,shixingnannvhunyinziyou、yifuyiqi、nannvquanlipingdeng,baohufunvhezinvdeliyi。

一分时时彩    zhongguogongchandangrenzailingdaogongnonggemingshi,yizhiguanzhuzhegongnongminzhongdehunyinwenti。zaiyixiegenjudichuxianle“jiechufengjianhunyin”“zhengquhunyinziyou”“baohufunvquanyi”dengxuanchuanhuoguiding。qicaoxiaozurenwei,zheishi《hunyinfa》feichufengjianzhuyijiatinghunyinzhidubixujianchi、quelidefangxiangheyuanze;qicaoxiaozuzaitaolunzhong,yizhirenwei《zhonghuasuweiaigongheguohunyintiaoli》dejibenyuanzefuherenminqunzhongdeyaoqiu,falvjichubijiaochengshu,zhideqicao《hunyinfa》shicankaohejiejian。

一分时时彩    《hunyinfa》diyitiao“feichubaobanqiangpo、nanzunnvbei、moshizinvliyidefengjianzhuyihunyinzhidu。shixingnannvhunyinziyou、yifuyiqi、nannvquanlipingdeng、baohufunvhezinvhefaliyidexinminzhuzhuyihunyinzhidu”hediertiao“jinzhizhonghun、naqie。jinzhitongyangxi。jinzhigansheguafuhunyinziyou。jinzhirenherenjiehunyinguanxiwentisuoqucaiwu”deguiding,zhengshiqicaoxiaozufanfuyanjiuhoutichude《hunyinfa》deyuanze。

一分时时彩    qicaoxiaozuhaifanfuyanjiutaolunlesulian、dongougexinminzhuzhuyiguojiade《hunyinfa》。youqishisuliande《hunyinfa》,yiconggenbenshangchanchulejiudehunyinzhidu,jianlilexindehunyinzhidu,shixinglehunyinziyou。1944nianyihou,sulianyifangmianbaoliuzhelihunziyoudeyuanze;lingyifangmianyouzhidinglexindelihunshouxu,guidinglihunshijianxuyoufayuangongkaishenli,bingguidinglihunyaojiaolihunshui,xianzhilihundecishu。zheixieguidingdemudejiushiweilefanduineixieduijiatingqingfuheduihunyinbufuzerendetaidu,weileyindaodajiajianli“jianquanergonggudejiating”。xinzhongguodangshizhengchuzaixinjiujiaotideguodushiqi,《hunyinfa》derenwujiushibaozhangrenminyouchongfendehunyinziyou,weijianlixindejiatingguanxiershuliguize。

邓颖超主张“一方坚持离婚可以离婚”

一分时时彩    shixinghunyinziyou,liyingbaokuojiehunziyouhelihunziyoulianggefangmian。jiehunxunannvshuangfangbenrenwanquanziyuan,buxurenheyifangduitafangjiayiqiangpohuorenhedisanzhejiayiganshe;zailihunfangmian,chunannvshuangfangziyuanlihundezhunyulihunwai,nannvyifangjianjueyaoqiulihunde,nengbunenglihunni?dangshi,qicao《hunyinfa》“zhenglunzuidadeshiyouguanlihunziyouwenti”。

  1950年4月13日,中央人民政府委员会第七次会议通过《中华人民共和国婚姻法》。

    1931nianbanbude《zhonghuasuweiaigongheguohunyintiaoli》di9tiaoguiding: “quedinglihunziyou,fannannvshuangfangtongyilihunde,jixinglihun。nannvyifangjianjueyaoqiulihunde,yijixinglihun。”zheiyitiao,《hunyinfa》yaobuyaoxiejinqu?qicaoxiaozuzhenglunjilie。zantongdeyifangrenwei,zheiyangcaishizhenzhengdehunyinziyou;fanduideyifangrenwei,hunyinshirenshengdashi,lihuntaiziyoulebuliyushehuiwending,youqizainongcun,lihunziyoule,bidingyaochudongdaoyibufennongmindeqieshenliyi,tamenbiranjiangchengweifanduipai。lingwaiyizhonggulvshi,dangshixingshifazhanhenkuai,mashangjiuyaojinchengle,pajinchengyihou,yixieganbuyilihunziyouweijiekou,lingyouxinai,banongcundeyuanpeipaoqile。

一分时时彩    zhongyangfuweiweileqicao《hunyinfa》suosoujidechengshixiangcundehunyincailiaoqilezhongyaozuoyong。genjusoujidecailiao,zaishanxi、hebei、chahaerdengshengnongcunminshianjianli,hunyinanjianzhan33.3%dao99%;zaibeijing、tianjin、shanghai、xian、haerbindeng8gechengshizhong,hunyinanjianzaiminshianjianzhongzhan11.9%dao48.9%。erhunyinanjianzhonglihunyujiechuhunyuede,zaishangshunongcunpingjunzhan54%,chengshizhan51%dao84%。lihunyuanyinzhuyaoshibaobanqiangpo、maimaihunyin、nvedaifunv、zaohun、zhonghun、tongjianyijiyiqideng,gongzhan78%dao82%;tichulihundezhuyaoshinvfang,zhan58%dao92%;tongshilihunanjiandedangshiren,juedaduoshushiqingzhuangnianlaodongrenmin。jubuwanquantongji,haerbinzi1946nian8yue23rizhiniandijishoulihunyinanjian108jian,1947nian628jian,1948nian1081jian,1949nian1yuezhi4yuejiuyou448jian;shanghai1949nian8yueshenpanhunyinanjian212jian,bingchengxianzhuyuezengjiadequshi,dao9yuezengjiazhi501jian。zheixiehunyinanjianzhongdaduoshuweilihunanjian,lihunanjianjuedaduoshushifunvyaoqiulihun。dangshi,zaixinjiefangdechengxiangyijimouxielaojiefangqu,youyujiudefengjianhunyinzhidushangweichedichanchu,rengshouzhejiuchuantong、jiusixiangdeyingxiang,tebieshifunv,zailihunfangmiansuoyudaodezuaibijiehunhaiyaoda,henduonongcunfunvchangchangyinweilihunbuziyouerzishahuozhebeisha。zheixiecailiaofanyingdeqingkuangshuoming,lihunziyoudeguidingduifunvshiyoulide。

    qicaoxiaozufuzerendengyingchaotaiduxianmingdijianjuezhuzhangjiashang“yifangjianchilihunkeyilihun”zheiyitiao。tarenwei: “zhongguoshehuizuishouyapodeshifunv,hunyinwentishangfunvdetongkuzuiduo。zaohun、laoshaohun、maimaihunshipubianxianxiang,rubugenjuejiutanbushanghunyinziyou。funvyaoqiulihun,wangwangbuyunxu,jizaidangneiyeruci。suoyi‘yifangjianchiyaolijiurangli’shizhuyaogenjufunvliyitichude。”“guoqumeiyouzheiyitiao,cengfashenghenduobeiju。jintianguidinghunyinfashiyuanzexingdeguiding,pohuaijiude,jianlixinde,jiubixuzhenduinannvbupingdengxianxiang,jifunvyibaozhang。”《hunyinfa》yingguiding“duiyunannvyifangjianjueyaoqiulihunde,jingqurenminzhengfuhesifajiguandiaojiewuxiaoshi,yizhunyulihun”。

着重保护妇女和子女合法权益

    weilegonggufuqijiandeguanxi,jianlixingfudejiating,qicaoxiaozufanfuyanjiutaolunrenwei,zai《hunyinfa》liyoubiyaoguidingfuqijiandequanliheyiwujifumu、zinvdeguanxi。《hunyinfa》disanzhangguidingle“fuqizaijiatingzhongdediweishipingdengde”,“fuqishuangfangdouyinggaiyouxuanzezhiyehecanjiashehuihuodongdeziyou”。“fuqijiandeguanxiyinggaishihuaihujing、huxiangbangzhu、huxiangfuyang、hemutuanjie、laodongshengchan、fuyuzinv,weijiatingxingfuhexinshehuiyifenshishicaierfendou”。

    《hunyinfa》jiranguiding“nannvhunyinziyou,yifangjianjueyaoqiulihunde,jizhunyulihun”,weilebimianyinqicaolvlihunheshehuidehunluan,qicaoxiaozuzai《hunyinfa》diwuzhangguidinglelihundefalvchengxu,haiyouguanyuhuifufuqiguanxideguiding,kaolvdaoneixieyouyuyishiganqingchongdong,tichulihun,ershihouyouhouhuiledefufu,shitamenkeyidedaofuhundeyunxu;dierzhangguidinglejiehundenianling,jinzhijiehundexianzhiyijijiehunzheyingqinzidaozhengfudengjideshouxu;《hunyinfa》disanzhang、disizhang、diliuzhanggetiao,guidingleduiyufuqi、zinvjianyingyoudequanliheyiwubixucaiqufuzedeyansudetaidu。zheixieguidingbujinjiaoyunannvshuangfangduijiehunhelihunyaocaiqushenzhongdetaidu,erqiemingquelefuqizhijian、fumuzinvzhijiandequanliheyiwuguanxi,tongshishuominglerenminzhengfuduiqunzhonghunyindashidejinshen、fuzedetaidu。

一分时时彩    《hunyinfa》zaiqicaoshizhezhongbaohufunvhezinvdehefaquanyi,shiqicaoxiaozujingguoshensishulvzuochudejueding,yeshiwanquanzhengdangde。yinweizaidangshijiudefengjiancanyuhaicunzai,xindeshehuizhidumeiyouwanquanjianli;cishizhongguodehunyinzhuangkuangpubiancunzaibaobanhunyin、maimaihunyin、congyierzhongdengbuhelidexianxiang,nanzijuyuyoushi,nvzichuyulieshi;jiazhangjuyuyoushi,zinvchuyulieshi。zhiyouzhezhongbaohufunvhezinvdehefaquanyi,caishizhenzhengdenannvpingdeng,caishi《zhongguorenminzhengzhixieshanghuiyigongtonggangling》zhongnannvpingdengdeyuanzezai《hunyinfa》shangdejutihua。《hunyinfa》zhezhongbaohufunvhezinvdehefaquanyi,yeshixinshehuijinbudeyigebiaozhi。

一分时时彩    1949nian3yue23ri,zhongyangfuweisuizhongyangjiguanyiqijinrugangjiefangdebeiping。《hunyinfa》caoanyoujingguoyifanxiugaihou,yu1950nian1yue21riyouzhongyangfuweichengsongdangzhongyang。qicaoxiaozufuzerendengyingchaofuleyifengqinbixin,dui《hunyinfa》deqicaoguochengheyouguanzhenglunneirongzuoleshuoming: “jijingzhenglun,jiduxiugai,youxiewenti,yijingdedaojiejue,danzhenglundezhuyaowenti,jiyifangjianchilihun,jikelihun,bufurenhetiaojianyize。zhijinrengyijianfenqi,shangweinengqudeyizhi。duiyucidianfanduizheshijiaoduoshuren,zanchengzhebaokuoyifenshishicaijishaoshuren。xianweileyinggedidejixu,qieyouguanguangdaqunzhongqieshenpoqiedeliyi,bunengzaituoyanbujue。gudajiashangding,yizhitongyixianyixianzaidecaoan,suiranyifenshishicairengbuwanquantongyi,yijingfuweiduoshutongyilezuihougao,bingjiangyifenshishicaibutongdeyijianyibingfushang,qingzhongyangcanyuezuozuihoujueding。”

多次修改后颁行 体现广大妇女要求

一分时时彩    1950nian1yue21ri,zhongyangrenminzhengfufazhiweiyuanhui(jiancheng“fazhiweiyuanhui”)zhixindongbiwubingqingzhuanbaoliushaoqi,baogaole《hunyinfa》caoandezhunbeiqingkuang。jiedaozhongyangfuweiqicaode《hunyinfa》caoanhou,zhongyangjianggaicaoanfenbiesonggeminzhudangpai、zhongyangrenminzhengfu、quanguozhengxie、fazhiweiyuanhui,yijizhengwuyuanzhengwuweiyuanhui,geyouguansifajiguan、qunzhongtuantizhengqiuyijian,bingjuxingleduozhongduocidezuotanhui,dui《hunyinfa》caoandeneironghewenzizuoleduocidexiugai。1950nian1yue28ri,fazhiweiyuanhuiyouxiangzhongyangchengbaolexiugaiyijian,duizhengqiuyijianhoude《hunyinfa》caoanzuoleshuoming。fazhiweiyuanhuibadengyingchaojianchide“yifangjianchilihunkeyilihun”dezhuzhangxiejinlechengbaodexiugaiyijianzhong。

    zhihouyoujingguozhongguorenminzhengzhixieshanghuiyiquanguoweiyuanhuichangwei、zhongyangrenminzhengfuweiyuanjizhengwuweiyuandengsanfangmiandeliangcilianxizuotanhuidui《hunyinfa》caoanzuolezuihoudexiugai。1950nian4yue13ri,jingzhongyangrenminzhengfuweiyuanhuidiqicihuiyishenyitongguole《hunyinfa》。5yue1ri,zhongyangrenminzhengfuzhengshibanbu《hunyinfa》。

    这部《婚姻法》从起草到颁布实施,经过了17个月的时间,是新中国成立后颁布的第一部法律,是中国劳动人民长期奋斗和人民解放战争胜利的果实之一,是在中国人民驱逐了帝国主义、推翻了国民党反动统治、建立了全国性的人民民主专政并在四分之一人口中实行了土地改革的基础上的产物,是广大劳动人民特别是广大劳动妇女在婚姻问题方面的要求的集中表现。    文中所示档案为中央档案馆藏




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